The microstructure of upper bainite in a silicon-rich steel. The image shows a "sheaf" of upper bainite, consisting of a cluster of very fine platelets (all in the same crystallographic orientation), separated in part by films of carbon-enriched retained austenite. The dark regions surrounding the sheaf are martensite. The incredibly fine submicrometer grain size of the individual bainite paltelets is very good for toughness. There is no thermomechanical process which can otherwise produce such a fine grain size in bulk specimens. After Bhadeshia and Edmonds, Metallurgical Transactions A, volume 10A (1979) 895-907.

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