Residual Stress Part 1 - Measurement Techniques

P. J. Withers and H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia


Residual stress is that which remains in a body which is stationary and at equilibrium with its surroundings. It can be very detrimental to the performance of a material or the life of a component. Alternatively, beneficial residual stresses can be introduced deliberately. Residual stresses are more difficult to predict than the in-service stresses on which they superimpose. For this reason it is important to have reliable methods for the measurement of these stresses and to understand the level of information they can provide. After summarising the effect of residual stresses on fatigue lifetimes and structural integrity, Part I of this review deals with the definition and measurement of residual stresses. Different types of stress are characterised according to the characteristic length scale over which they self-equilibrate. By comparing this length to the gauge volume of each technique, the capability of a range of techniques is assessed. Part II goes on to look at the different nature and origins of residual stress for a variety of different classes of materials.

Materials Science and Technology, Vol. 17, 2001, 355-365.

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