Macrosegregation in Steel Ingots: The Applicability of Modelling and Characterisation Techniques

E. J. Pickering


The macro-scale segregation of alloying elements during the casting continues to afflict the manufacturers of steel ingots, despite many decades of research into its prediction and elimination. Defects such as A-segregates are still commonplace, and components are regularly scrapped due to their presence, leading to increased economic and environmental costs. With the growth of the nuclear power industry, and the increased demands placed on new pressure vessels, it is now more important than ever that today’s steel ingots are as chemically homogeneous as possible.

This article briefly reviews the development of our current understanding of macrosegregation phenomena during the 20th century, before going on to assess the latest developments in the field of macrosegregation modelling. The aim of the text is to highlight the shortcomings of applying contemporary macromodels to steel-ingot casting, and to suggest practical alternatives. In addition, the experimental characterisation of macrosegregation is explored, and a review of the various techniques currently available is presented.

ISIJ International, 653 (2013) 935-949.

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