Teaching Materials

H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia


Lecture notes and question sheets Mathematical Crystallography: book Examination questions
Lecture video playlist Crystals, polycrystals, transformations: book PbTiO3
Answers to Question Sheet 1 Crystal Plasticity: book Coincidence site lattice
Answers to Question Sheet 2 Introduction to Crystallography Completely random pattern
Answers to Question Sheet 3 Crystallographic texture Stereograms & meteorites
Examples Class 1, Answers, truncated cubes Growing crystalline trees Cementite structure
Examples Class 2, Answers Bragg law Electron diffraction
Minerals in Moscow
Latex files Minerals in Colorado
Anisotropy of cementite Raman Institute Moon crystals moon crystals
Grids of atoms Minerals in Austria Atomium
Symmetry of cementite Minerals in Scotland Wolframite (Fe,Mn)WO4
α-alumina (sapphire)
Symmetry of σ-phase Minerals in China Iron crystallography
Pink rhodonite Snowflake Minerals in Zurich
Pure, amorphous iron

Slides and Videos

Introduction Animations Scaleable vector graphics
Bravais lattices -2m, 2mm, 4mm, 4mm, 4mm, 4mm
Structure, point groups Three dimensional 11, 100_110_angle, 100_111_angle
Stereograms and point groups Titanate Epsomite, Point groups amorphous, arc, arc, Bain strain
Structure solution Austenite and Ferrite Bravais lattices, circle, directions-planes
Space groups Cuprite Cementite Fluorite, 4-index, cubic-GaN
Reciprocal lattice, diffraction ε-carbide KS, KS, Liquid crystal, Liquid crystal
Deformation and texture Vanadium carbide mm2, ordered, Liquid crystals
Gypsum Schmid, Titanate, trace, piezo
Interfaces and orientations Molybdenum carbide trace, zone, 020, 112, epsomite
Martensitic transformations Video Graphite gypsum, fivefold, inversion, primitive
Niobium carbide Structure projection, symbols, symmetry operations
Metric tensor, deformations Video Brass, diamond, ZnS & flourite    Great circle 1, 2, 3
Similarity transformations Video Nickel based superalloy, γ Camera constant, Circle projection, Circle projection
Correspondence, stretch and rotation Video Nickel based superalloy, γ' Cubic stereogram 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, Meteorite, mirror
Martensite crystallography 1 Video Nickel based superalloy, γ'' Stereogram 1, 2, 3, 4, small circle 1, 2, 3, 4
Martensite crystallography 2, texture Video Fayalite Wulff net 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Interfaces Video Fayalite
Interstitials Video Grain selection
Bain correspondence & strain
Lithium niobate
Calcium chloride

Metals & Alloys (year 2)

Atomic Diffusion Slides Video Uphill diffusion
Slides Video Kirkendall effect
Diffusion in action
Solidification Slides Video Centrifugal casting
Slides Video Dendritic solidification
Slides Video Metallography of dendrites
Al-Si casting alloys
Solidification movies
Simulated solidification
Recovery, Recrystallisation & Grain Growth Slides Video Annealing twins
Slides Mechanical Twins
Slides Video Zener pinning
Austenite recrystallisation
Recrystallised grain size
Grain growth simulations
Recrystallisation: movie
Recrystallisation: copper
Martensitic Transformations Slides Video Cry of indium
Ferrous Alloys Slides Video Cast iron
Fabrication of steel
Tallest tower
Other Metallic Materials Slides Video Al-Cu age-hardening
Precipitate-free zones
High Temperature Alloys Slides Video Aeroengines
Superalloy dislocations
FastShip concept
Question Sheet 1 Answers
Question Sheet 2 Answers Latex files, examination papers
Question Sheet 3 Answers Experiments
Question Sheet 4 Answers Metallographic preparation
Any Questions? Images Worked examples

Phase transformations (year 2, Queen Mary University of London)

Phase transformations (complete lecture notes)
Mechanisms of transformationSlides, 1 Video of lecture 1The Curie temperature
Elementary thermodynamicsSlides, 2 Video of lecture 2Geiger counter
Equilibrium stateSlides, 3 Video of lecture 3Growing aluminium dendrite
Phase diagramsSlides, 4 Video of lecture 43D model of ternary phase diagram
DiffusionSlides, 5 Video of lecture 5
Atomic mechanisms of diffusionSlides, 6 Video of lecture 6
NucleationSlides, 7 Video of lecture 7
SolidificationSlides, 8 Video of lecture 8
Steels and aluminiumSlides, 9 Video of lecture 9

Metals & Alloys (year 3)

Aluminium alloys Slides Video More information
Aluminium cans
Aerospace aluminium
Titanium alloys Slides Video More information
Titanium aeroengine fire
Martensitic transformations Slides Video More information
Bainite Slides Video Multilingual bainite
Bainite in bearings
Bainite growth
Widmanstaetten ferrite Slides Video More information
Allotriomorphs and Idiomorphs Slides Video More information
Slides Video
Strong steels Slides Video More information
Strength+toughness movie
Welds Slides Video More information
Examples class Answers Example techniques project
Question Sheet 1 Answers Example literature review
Question Sheet 2 Answers Example vacation project

Worked examples Steel queries
Crystallography of interstices Bain strain and correspondence
Cementite Joining of aluminium
Science in Parliament "On the right track"
Tough tracks Hydrogen in steels
Solution thermodynamics Flow within a weld pool
Arc welding Aeroengine-blade containment
Aircraft taking off Fabrication of metals
Friction stir welding Motion of dislocations
Shape memory alloy. Singing steel
Creative design Optical microscopy
Using Class microscope Using Class digital-microscope
Quantitative metallography Optical microscopy slides More slides

Master of Science (year 4)


Lecture video playlist (2020), Lecture video playlist (2022)

Book: Steels, 4th edition, Bhadeshia and Honeycombe

Notes Slides Videos Videos 2022Slides 2022DiagramsDiagrams
Lecture notes Martensite part 1, part 2 , Martensite I Habit inclination Impingement
Martensite movie Martensite II Burst martensite Nucleation
Bainite Bainite Crystal size Ohm's law
Strong bainite Bainite: design Diffusion distance Plate growth
Examples class Widmanstaetten ferrite Widmanstaetten Displacive Sessile
Latex files Allotriomorphic ferrite Ferrite Tapered tensile Sphere
Multicomponent steel TTT
Pearlite growth spread sheet Pearlite Pearlite T-zero
Overall kinetics Overall kinetics Dislocation Stacking
TRIP steel TRIP steel Ellipsoids T0 schematic
TWIP steel TWIP/TRIP Extrusion TRIP-Ms
Bulk nanostructured steel Nanostructured Glissile TWIP impact

Materials Modelling

Revision thermodynamics
Computation of phase diagrams
Thermodynamics of irreversible processes
Finite element analysis
Worked examples

Master of Philosophy (Materials Modelling)

Course MP1: General Methodology

Introduction to Crystallography Slides Slides Questions
Brass, diamond, zinc sulphide and flourite
Simulation of recrystallisation
Materials algorithms

Course MP4: Thermodynamics and Phase Diagrams

Thermodynamic functions Slides Questions
Equilibrium between solutions Slides More on solution formation
Mechanical alloying Slides Nanocrystalline metals
Boltzmann's epitaph (courtesy, Mark Hull) Mechanical alloying
Computation of phase diagrams Slides MTDATA instructions
Computing Class on MTDATA
Data for phase diagrams
Calculations using MTDATA
Irreversible processes Slides
Quasichemical solutions Slides Interstitial Solutions
Question Sheet 1 Answers
Question Sheet 2 Answers
High-entropy alloys, Part 1
High-entropy alloys, Part 2
High-entropy alloys, Part 3

Course materials on FactSage, by Dr Feng Liu

FactSage© is an integrated database computing system in chemical thermodynamics. Dr Feng Liu kindly provided the materials below, which formed a part of his 3rd year undergraduate course at the University of Toronto, Canada.

Information and databases
Reaction module
Phase diagram calculations
Equilibrium module
More on equilibrium module

Course MP5: Mesoscale and Multiscale Modelling

Design of alloys for the energy industries

Course MP6: Kinetics & Microstructure Modelling

Introduction to diffusion Slides Video Uphill diffusion
Thermodynamics of diffusion Slides Video Movie: spinodal decomposition
Spinodal simulation
Diffusion-Controlled Growth Slides Video
Other interface-response functions Slides Video
Growth morphologies Slides Video Dendrites and cells - the movie
Overall Transformation Kinetics Slides Video Elementary nucleation theory
Overall Transformation Kinetics II Slides Video Computing TTT diagrams
Creep-resistant steels Slides Video Review on phase fields
Phase Field Modelling Slides Video Thesis
Applications of Phase Field Modelling
Diffusion in steep gradients

Course MP7: Finite Element Analysis

Introduction and elastic analysis Slides Video Example application
Thermal Analysis Slides Video
Modelling resources
More modelling resources

Course MP9: Information Theory, Pattern Recognition and Neural Networks

Neural networks Slides Video Hyperbolic tangents
Gaussian distributions Slides More on Gaussians
Gaussian Processes video
Basic definitions
Bayesian framework Slides Matrix algebra
Worked example Slides Spreadsheet for matrix operations
Genetic algorithms with neural networks Slides Bayesian neural networks
Case studies Slides Review
Tricks Slides Genetic Algorithms
Examples Class 1 Data Answers
Examples Class 2 Answers

Course MP10: Process Modelling

Fusion Welding Slides
Steel microstructures Slides
Weld microstructure model Slides


Blast-resistant steel Steel, Ingenuity and Future
Maximum entropy method Genetic algorithms
Phase diagram calculations Thermodynamic data
Why have sex? Centre of the Earth
Aerospace aluminium Intermetallics and aluminium cans
Magnetism on verge of breakdown Trent aerongine
Climate and risk Ductile iron
Cobalt silicide Unsteady turbine aerodynamics
Composites for aerospace Biological molecules
Steels Non-ferrous metallurgy
Shipbuilding Propulsion Systems


M.Phil. examination papers Instructions for literature review
Guidelines for thesis Reading List

Thermal Analysis

Introduction, Differential Thermal Analysis, Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Dilatometry, Other Techniques and References

Review Articles

Steels for rails
Models in Materials Science Friction Stir Welding
Friction Stir Welding Tools Dimensions of Steel
Coalesced Bainite Crystallographic Texture
Diffusional Transformations Phase Transformations in Steels
Bainite: Unresolved Issues Very Strong Bainite
Nanocrystalline Bainite Nanocrystalline Steel
Creep-Resistant Stainless Steels Ferritic Creep-Resistant Steels
Design of Superalloys Design of Steels
Neural Networks Simultaneous Transformations
Frontiers in Welding Metallurgy Modelling Steel Welds
Type IV Cracking of Welds New Welding Alloys
Strong Ferritic-Steel Welds Alternatives to Ferrite-Pearlite
Steels: Remanent Life Assessment Mechanical Alloying
Mechanically Alloyed Metals Residual Stress, Part 1
Residual Stress, Part 2 Efficient Design of New Alloys
Phase Field Method Bearing Steels
Bainite controversy Macrosegregation
Anisotropy of pipes Computational design
Low-temperature welds Phosphorus embrittlement
Hydrogen embrittlement Diffusion-controlled growth

General Articles Science for 5 year olds
Teaching 60,000 students per month Density - lesson 1
Aspects of Materials Education Density - lesson 2
Van Horn lectures
Darwin College Lectures, 2023


Free Restricted
Theory of Transformations in Steels
Bainite in Steels Introduction to Materials Modelling
Mathematical Crystallography Steels
Alloying Elements in Steels Other Books
Physical Properties of Martensite and Bainite Isolation
Mechanisms of Phase Transformations in Crystalline Solids
Crystal Plasticity
Extremely Strong Steels
Conference Proceedings
Transformation and Hardenability in Steels
Alloys for the Eighties
Towards Improved Ductility and Toughness

PT Group Home Materials Algorithms